‚ÄčIntelligence Test

           The psychometric approach to intelligence emphasizes peoples performance   on standard, aptitude test predicts peoples future  ability to acquire skill or knowledge knowledge. Achievement test on the other hand measure skill & and knowledge that people have already learnt.

Intelligence test can given individually or to group of people. The best known known intelligence test are described as under:

A)The Binet-Simon Scale

Alfred Binet and his colleagues Theodore Simon devised the general test of mental ability in 1995. The test elded score in term of mental age. Mental age is a chronological age that typically corresponds to a particular level of performance.

Eg:A 10 years old child whose score indicates , a mental age of 12, performed like a typical 12 years child.

B)The Standford-Binet Intelligence  Scale

Lewis Therman and his colleagues of Standford University created the Standford-Binet intelligence scale in 1916 by expanding and revising the Binet-Simon scale. The Standford-Binet yielded score in term of IQ(Intelligence Quotient). The IQ ist the Mental age divided by Chronological age and Multiplied  by 100.

Eg: A 10 years old child whose performance resembles to the typical 12 years child, his score is 120.

C)Wechesler Test

The wechesler rest is based on the adult intelligence scale. This test contains many items that accesses nonverbal reasoning ability and dependless on verbal ability, which provide score on  both and also on overall intelligence. Wechesler has used IQ test method to describe the score of IQ test. However, the wechesler test is based on normal distribution of data which represent how characterstics like IQ are distributed on large population. In this IQ scoring system, the mean IQ is set at 100 and standard deviation is set at 15. So, the people (68%) tested will score between 85 to 115 within one SD of mean.

The intelligence level varies  from person to person. Thus to identify the level of intelligence, we can use various methods by asking the question to an individual or group.

 i)Verbal Question: The question including the comprehension of verbal relation word and ideas may ask to test intelligence.

ii)Spatial Question: The question involving any task, in which the subject manipulates an object imaginatively in space may ask.

iii)Numerical Question: By giving the numerical/mathematical problem to solve the problem accurately and rapidly on given time.

iv)Memory Factor: The question involving the ability of to memorise quickly, may ask.

v)Perceptual Issue: To give the issue to perceive the given object accurately. E.g:Proxmity, simplicity, continuity etc.

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Intelligence Test

The psychometric approach to intelligence emphasizes peoples performance   on standard, aptitude test   predicts peoples future  ability to acquire skill or knowledge knowledge. Achievement test on the other hand measure skill & and knowledge that people have already learnt.

Intelligence test can given individually or to group of people. The best known known intelligence test are described as under:

A)The Binet-Simon Scale

Alfred Binet and his colleagues Theodore Simon devised the general test of mental ability in 1995. The test elded score in term of mental age. Mental age is a chronological age that typically corresponds to a particular level of performance.

 

Eg:A 10 years old child whose score indicates , a mental age of 12, performed like a typical 12 years child.

B)The Standford-Binet Intelligence  Scale

Lewis Therman and his colleagues of Standford University created the Standford-Binet intelligence scale in 1916 by expanding and revising the Binet-Simon scale. The Standford-Binet yielded score in term of IQ(Intelligence Quotient). The IQ ist the Mental age divided by Chronological age and Multiplied  by 100.

Eg: A 10 years old child whose performance resembles to the typical 12 years child, his score is 120.

C)Wechesler Test

The wechesler rest is based on the adult intelligence scale. This test contains many items that accesses nonverbal reasoning ability and dependless on verbal ability, which provide score on  both and also on overall intelligence. Wechesler has used IQ test method to describe the score of IQ test. However, the wechesler test is based on normal distribution of data which represent how characterstics like IQ are distributed on large population. In this IQ scoring system, the mean IQ is set at 100 and standard deviation is set at 15. So, the people (68%) tested will score between 85 to 115 within one SD of mean.

The intelligence level varies  from person to person. Thus to identify the level of intelligence, we can use various methods by asking the question to an individual or group.

i)Verbal Question: The question including the comprehension of verbal relation word and ideas may ask to test intelligence.

ii)Spatial Question: The question involving any task, in which the subject manipulates an object imaginatively in space may ask.

iii)Numerical Question: By giving the numerical/mathematical problem to solve the problem accurately and rapidly on given time.

iv)Memory Factor: The question involving the ability of to memorise quickly, may ask.

v)Perceptual Issue: To give the issue to perceive the given object accurately. E.g:Proxmity, simplicity, continuity etc.

The effect of ‚ÄėHeridity and Environment‚Äô on Intelligence¬†

                The relative importance of nature vs. Nurture has been investigated by different psychologist  sociologist. The conclusion of their studies reveals that the intelligence is the product of heridity & environment.

i)Distribution of Intelligence : It resembles the distribution of health, wealth, beauty and similar other characterstics. Its a normal distribution that is governed by a principle the majority of the people are at the average, a few very brillant and a few very dull.

ii)Individual difference in Intelligence : Individual different is existed between person to person, even the identical twin or the individual nurtured almost in similar environment doesnt have equal mental capability following in them. Thus it states that intelligence varies from person to person even in same individual from age ton age & situation to situation. 

iii)Intelligence and change in age : After the vertical growth in intelligence it reaches at maximum at the age of 16-20 in individual. But the horizental growth(accumulation of knowledge and aquisition of skill) continues throughout the life span of an individual.        

iv)Intelligence & Sex difference : Various studies have been conducted that women are less intelligent than men. The result of result hang in one way to another. Thus the sexual differentiation doesnt contribute towards difference in intelligence.

v)Intelligence and racial & cultural difference : Various hypothesis and research have been examined wether a particular race, caste or cultural group is superior to another in intelligence. The bright or dull can be find in any cultural group, race or caste and the diference  which are found can be explained in term of environmental influence.         

The effect of ‚ÄėHeridity and Environment‚Äô on Intelligence¬†

                The relative importance of nature vs. Nurture has been investigated by different psychologist  sociologist. The conclusion of their studies reveals that the intelligence is the product of heridity & environment.

i)Distribution of Intelligence : It resembles the distribution of health, wealth, beauty and similar other characterstics. Its a normal distribution that is governed by a principle the majority of the people are at the average, a few very brillant and a few very dull.

ii)Individual difference in Intelligence : Individual different is existed between person to person, even the identical twin or the individual nurtured almost in similar environment doesnt have equal mental capability following in them. Thus it states that intelligence varies from person to person even in same individual from age ton age & situation to situation. 

iii)Intelligence and change in age : After the vertical growth in intelligence it reaches at maximum at the age of 16-20 in individual. But the horizental growth(accumulation of knowledge and aquisition of skill) continues throughout the life span of an individual.        

iv)Intelligence & Sex difference : Various studies have been conducted that women are less intelligent than men. The result of result hang in one way to another. Thus the sexual differentiation doesnt contribute towards difference in intelligence.

v)Intelligence and racial & cultural difference : Various hypothesis and research have been examined wether a particular race, caste or cultural group is superior to another in intelligence. The bright or dull can be find in any cultural group, race or caste and the diference  which are found can be explained in term of environmental influence.         

Intelligence Test:

                The psychometric approach to intelligence emphasizes peoples performance   on standard, aptitude test   predicts peoples future  ability to acquire skill or knowledge knowledge. Achievement test on the other hand measure skill & and knowledge that people have already learnt.

Intelligence test can given individually or to group of people. The best known known inintelligenceintelligenceearstelligence test are described as under:

A)The Binet-Simon Scale

Alfred Binet and his colleagues Theodore Simon devised the general test of mental ability in 1995. The test elded score in term of mental age. Mental age is a chronological age that typically corresponds to a particular level of performance.

B)The Standford-Binet Intelligence  Scale

Lewis Therman and his colleagues of Standford University created the Standford-Binet intelligence scale in 1916 by expanding and revising the Binet-Simon scale. The Standford-Binet yielded score in term of IQ(Intelligence Quotient). The IQ is the Mental age divided by Chronological age and multiply it by 100.


C)Wechesler Test

The wechesler rest is based on the adult intelligence scale. This test contains many items that accesses nonverbal reasoning ability and dependless on verbal ability, which provide score on  both and also on overall intelligence. Wechesler has used IQ test method to describe the score of IQ test. However, the wechesler test is based on normal distribution of data which represent how characterstics like IQ are distributed on large population. In this IQ scoring system, the mean IQ is set at 100 and standard deviation is set at 15. So, the people (68%) tested will score between 85 to 115 within one SD of mean.

The intelligence level varies  from person to person. Thus to identify the level of intelligence, we can use various methods by asking the question to an individual or group.

 i)Verbal Question: The question including the comprehension of verbal relation word and ideas may ask to test intelligence.

ii)Spatial Question: The question involving any task, in which the subject manipulates an object imaginatively in space may ask.

iii)Numerical Question: By giving the numerical/mathematical problem to solve the problem accurately and rapidly on given time.

iv)Memory Factor: The question involving the ability of to memorise quickly, may ask.

v)Perceptual Issue: To give the issue to perceive the given object accurately. E.g:Proxmity, simplicity, continuity etc.       
Probable questions that we can ask to test intelligence:
The intelligence level varies  from person to person. Thus to identify the level of intelligence, we can use various methods by asking the question to an individual or group.

 i)Verbal Question: The question including the comprehension of verbal relation word and ideas may ask to test intelligence.

ii)Spatial Question: The question involving any task, in which the subject manipulates an object imaginatively in space may ask.

iii)Numerical Question: By giving the numerical/mathematical problem to solve the problem accurately and rapidly on given time.

iv)Memory Factor: The question involving the ability of to memorise quickly, may ask.

v)Perceptual Issue: To give the issue to perceive the given object accurately. E.g:Proxmity, simplicity, continuity etc.       

‚ÄčTheories of Intelligence

The intelligence try to throw light on the structure of intelligence. The some major theories of intelligence can be described as under.
i)Unitary Theory:

This theory holds that intelligence consist of only one factor i.e: a fund of intellectual competence.
ii)Multi-factor Theory:

Thus theory consist intelligence is a combination of numerous separate element or factors, each being a minute element of ability.
iii)Sparemens Two-factor Theory:

This theory advocates that all the intellectual task can be categorized into certain definite groups. Each group has unique common factor known as group factor. Here the thory is described as G& S factor  where G means general factor which is shared with all intellectual activities and S means specific factor which it is shared with known.
iv)Vernons Hierarchical Theory:

This theory suggests a hierarchical structure for the organization of intelligence in the shape of G, an overall factor branching into two major group factors and various specific factors. Guilford has tried to illustrate his view point through a model of intellect involving three interpreted and interacted basic parameters: operation, contents & products.

Intelligence

              Intelligence is a sort of mental or cognitive abilities available  n an individual to enable self to handle environment in term of adaptation  and facing difficult situation as effective as possible.  Hence the intelligence sums up the following four stages:
*The ability to learn

*The ability to deal with abstraction

*The ability to be adjusted in new situation

*The ability to make appropriate response to certain stimuli in given situation

Thinking:

                 It is derived from the Latin word which means to know. It is a mental activity that goes in brain when a person processing into organizing, understanding and communicating it to others. Thinking  allows human to make sense of interprete, represent or  model the world they experience and to make prediction about that world.

Nature:
1)Cognitive activity: Thinking is a mental activity that goes in our mind.
2)Goal oriented: It is always directed towards some end or purpose. In genuine thinking we wonder on with definite goal.
3)Problem solving: Thinking is described as problem solving behavior. The thinking arrises when the problem arrises. Any thinking would be problem solving behavior but every problem solving behavior may not be thinking.
4)Shifts rapidly: Thinkins isnt static /constant. Thinking may be shift rapidly covering an expanse of time and space almost intaineously.5)Symbolic process: In thinking there arise mental solution of the problem which is carried out through some signs, symbol and mental images.
6)Personal matters: Thinking is personal matter because it con not be visualized by other about our internal thinking process which we can not share to all others.

Types of thinking:
1)Autistic Thinking:Thinking is governed by internal process irrespective of real worlds concern. It may be about pleasureable wishes, planning about future action etc.
2)Perceptual thinking: The basis of this thinking is perception  i.e: interpretation of sensation according to ones sensation. It is also called concrete thinking which carries over the perception of actual or concrete object & events.
3)Conceptual thinking: It is also called abstract thinking which requires the concept, generalized ideas and language. It is superior to perceptual thinking that economise effort in understanding & problem solving.
4)Inductive thinking: It is a process of reasoning from past to the whole to generalize all/whole & through one specific part.
5)Deductive thinking:It is a process to reasoning from the whole to the specific part.
6)Critical thinking: It is concerned on solution through reason to solve the facing problems.

Components of  Thinking

The various element or tools applied on thinking process may be summarized as the components of thinking. In the process of thinking we usually relay on following elements or tools:

1)Mental images:

The mental images consist of mental picture of our past experience relating to objects, scenes, hearing etc.
2)Concept:

A concept is a generalized ideas that represent the common property of all objects or events of a specific class. The concept may be super-ordinate, basic level type, sub-ordinate, formal, natural etc.
3)Prototype:

This concept correspond to our mental image or the basic example of our concept when we think about concept we often think the representative eg. of it. For instance, when we think about vechicles we may trace a picture of bus, truck etc. in our mind.
4)Reasoning

Its a process in which information is used to draw conclusion in order to make decision. It is based on  cognitive and critical thinking.
5)Brain function

Our mind is said to the chief instrument or reservoir for carrying out the process of thinking. Thus whatever be happen in our thinking process can simply be called as product or function of our brain.
Reasoning:

                Reasoning is essentially a cognitive ablity and reassembles thinking in so many aspects. It is used to describe the mantal cognition o cause and effect  relationship. It may be prediction of an event from an observed cause or an interference of an observed event.

According to Garret

Reasoning is stop wise thinking with a purpose of goal in mind.
Types of Thinking

Reasoning may be classified into two broad types, that are mentioned as below:

1)Inductive Reasoning

It is a way of providing a statement or generalizing a rule or principle by providing that the statement is true in some particular case. For instance, if there are maximum people are mortal in one class we perceive that all human beings are mortal. Eg; iron, air and water expands when it heated, thus we perceive that all solid liquid and gas expands when it is heated.

2)Deductive Reasoning

Deductive reasoning start completely agreeing with some already discovered, pre-established or generalized fact or principle and applies in some specific cases.  For, instance we say all human beings are mortal thus we perceive that we are human being so we must be mortal. Eg; matter expands when heated as such iron is a matter thus it expands when it is heated.

3)Thought and Brain

Thinking is the primary function of brain. The brain is the reservoir for carrying out the process of thinking. Whatever be an experience through our sense organ it carries no meaning and can not serve  the stimulating agent, an instrument or object of our thinking, unless the brain receive the same picture or image that properly interpreted for deriving some meaning. Therefore what happen in our thought  process can simply be called as a game function or the product of the activities of our brain.
4)Problem Solving

Problem solving is a process off overcoming difficulties that appear to interfere with the attainment of goal. It is a procedure of making adjustment in spite of interference. It involves higher thinking and systematic scientific step for the realization of the set of goals. The scientific step involves identification of problems awareness, understanding and collection of relevant information, formulation of hypothesis, selection of proper solution and verification of the conducted solution or hypothesis.

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