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Thinking:

                 It is derived from the Latin word which means to know. It is a mental activity that goes in brain when a person processing into organizing, understanding and communicating it to others. Thinking  allows human to make sense of interprete, represent or  model the world they experience and to make prediction about that world.

Nature:
1)Cognitive activity: Thinking is a mental activity that goes in our mind.
2)Goal oriented: It is always directed towards some end or purpose. In genuine thinking we wonder on with definite goal.
3)Problem solving: Thinking is described as problem solving behavior. The thinking arrises when the problem arrises. Any thinking would be problem solving behavior but every problem solving behavior may not be thinking.
4)Shifts rapidly: Thinkins isnt static /constant. Thinking may be shift rapidly covering an expanse of time and space almost intaineously.5)Symbolic process: In thinking there arise mental solution of the problem which is carried out through some signs, symbol and mental images.
6)Personal matters: Thinking is personal matter because it con not be visualized by other about our internal thinking process which we can not share to all others.

Types of thinking:
1)Autistic Thinking:Thinking is governed by internal process irrespective of real worlds concern. It may be about pleasureable wishes, planning about future action etc.
2)Perceptual thinking: The basis of this thinking is perception  i.e: interpretation of sensation according to ones sensation. It is also called concrete thinking which carries over the perception of actual or concrete object & events.
3)Conceptual thinking: It is also called abstract thinking which requires the concept, generalized ideas and language. It is superior to perceptual thinking that economise effort in understanding & problem solving.
4)Inductive thinking: It is a process of reasoning from past to the whole to generalize all/whole & through one specific part.
5)Deductive thinking:It is a process to reasoning from the whole to the specific part.
6)Critical thinking: It is concerned on solution through reason to solve the facing problems.

Components of  Thinking

The various element or tools applied on thinking process may be summarized as the components of thinking. In the process of thinking we usually relay on following elements or tools:

1)Mental images:

The mental images consist of mental picture of our past experience relating to objects, scenes, hearing etc.
2)Concept:

A concept is a generalized ideas that represent the common property of all objects or events of a specific class. The concept may be super-ordinate, basic level type, sub-ordinate, formal, natural etc.
3)Prototype:

This concept correspond to our mental image or the basic example of our concept when we think about concept we often think the representative eg. of it. For instance, when we think about vechicles we may trace a picture of bus, truck etc. in our mind.
4)Reasoning

Its a process in which information is used to draw conclusion in order to make decision. It is based on  cognitive and critical thinking.
5)Brain function

Our mind is said to the chief instrument or reservoir for carrying out the process of thinking. Thus whatever be happen in our thinking process can simply be called as product or function of our brain.
Reasoning:

                Reasoning is essentially a cognitive ablity and reassembles thinking in so many aspects. It is used to describe the mantal cognition o cause and effect  relationship. It may be prediction of an event from an observed cause or an interference of an observed event.

According to Garret

Reasoning is stop wise thinking with a purpose of goal in mind.
Types of Thinking

Reasoning may be classified into two broad types, that are mentioned as below:

1)Inductive Reasoning

It is a way of providing a statement or generalizing a rule or principle by providing that the statement is true in some particular case. For instance, if there are maximum people are mortal in one class we perceive that all human beings are mortal. Eg; iron, air and water expands when it heated, thus we perceive that all solid liquid and gas expands when it is heated.

2)Deductive Reasoning

Deductive reasoning start completely agreeing with some already discovered, pre-established or generalized fact or principle and applies in some specific cases.  For, instance we say all human beings are mortal thus we perceive that we are human being so we must be mortal. Eg; matter expands when heated as such iron is a matter thus it expands when it is heated.

3)Thought and Brain

Thinking is the primary function of brain. The brain is the reservoir for carrying out the process of thinking. Whatever be an experience through our sense organ it carries no meaning and can not serve  the stimulating agent, an instrument or object of our thinking, unless the brain receive the same picture or image that properly interpreted for deriving some meaning. Therefore what happen in our thought  process can simply be called as a game function or the product of the activities of our brain.
4)Problem Solving

Problem solving is a process off overcoming difficulties that appear to interfere with the attainment of goal. It is a procedure of making adjustment in spite of interference. It involves higher thinking and systematic scientific step for the realization of the set of goals. The scientific step involves identification of problems awareness, understanding and collection of relevant information, formulation of hypothesis, selection of proper solution and verification of the conducted solution or hypothesis.

​Reinforcement Schedule

The rule that specifies the timing and frequency of reinforcement is called reinforcement schedule. The reinforcement can  be classified under following topics;

1)Continuous reinforcement: Its reinforcement which occur after each response for positive activity of a person.

2)Fix ratio schedule: Its a reinforcement which occurs after a fix number of response of response have been emitted since the previous reinforcement.

3)Variable ratio schedule: The ratio which occur after a variable number of response have been emitted since the previous reinforcement.
4)Fix interval schedule: Its a reinforcement which occur following in the first response after a fixed time has elapsed after a previous reinforcement.
5)Variable interval schedule: The reinforcement which occur following the first response after a variable time has elapsed from the previous reinforcement.

​Trial and Error Theory:

Trial and Error Theory:

                This theory was developed by American psychologist” E.L. Thorndike”. His argument is that learning takes place through trial and error method. His defines ‘Learning is a gradual process where an individual makes many attempts to learn’.  This theory states that when a learner is stated in a new situation, makes random movements to learn. Such movements result, successful movements to be selected replacing the unsuccessful one. Thus the essence of this theory is as Trial increases error decreases.

The experiment sums up the following stages:

1)Drive

2)Goal

3)Block

4)Random movements

5)Chance to be success

6)Selection of  Proper movements

7)Fixation

Operant Conditioning

Operant Conditioning:

                Learning in which voluntary response is strengthened or weakened depending on its favorable and unfavourable consequences is operant conditioning. It involves increasing behavior by following it with reward or decreasing it by following with the punishment. Thus, operant conditioning is is process of shaping behavior by means of reinforcement or punishment.

✳Types of Operant Conditioning:

i)Positive reinforcement: A stimulus added to the environment, that bring about an increase in  a preceding response is positive reinforcement. It is given after a positive action in the form of reward or award.

ii)Extinction: Its  a continuous flow of positive reinforcement till the person get to learn the desirable form of behavior. For eg. mother gives a chocolate to child for additional positive behavioral change in child.

iii)Negative reinforcement: Any reinforcement added continuously till the person stops performing  unwanted forms of behavior.

iv)Punishment: Its a stimulus which decrease in  repeating previous undesirable behavior. Eg, teachers punishment to student to present in class on time.

​Reinforcement Schedule

Reinforcement Schedule:

The rule that specifies the timing and frequency of reinforcement is called reinforcement schedule. The reinforcement can  be classified under following topics;

1)Continuous reinforcement: Its reinforcement which occur after each response for positive activity of a person.
2)Fix ratio schedule: Its a reinforcement which occurs after a fix number of response of response have been emitted since the previous reinforcement.
3)Variable ratio schedule: The ratio which occur after a variable number of response have been emitted since the previous reinforcement.
4)Fix interval schedule: Its a reinforcement which occur following in the first response after a fixed time has elapsed after a previous reinforcement.
5)Variable interval schedule: The reinforcement which occur following the first response after a variable time has elapsed from the previous reinforcement.

​Classical Conditioning Theory:

Classical Conditioning Theory

               This theory was developed by Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov”. This theory states a type of learning in which an organism respond to a nutral stimulus that normally doesnt bring about that response. Pavlov has derived this theory through his experiment on dog. The experiment runs of the following stages.

1)Unconditioned Stimulus:The first one is a nutral stimulus that technically known as unconditioned stimulus, i.e: food.

2)Unconditoned Response:The second element is nutral response technically known as unconditioned response i.e: salvation.

3)Conditioned Stimulus:Once nutral stimulus that has been paired  with an unconditioned stimulus to bring about a response formerly caused only by the unconditioned stimulus. Its an artificial stimulus i.e: Ringing bell.

4)Conditioned Response:Its a response that after conditioning followed a previously nutral stimulus i.e: Salvation produced by response.

1)Extinction: It is a basic phenomenon of learning which occurs when previously conditioned response decrease in frequency and eventually disappear.

2)Spontaneous Recovery:It is a remembrance of extinguished conditioned response after a period of rest and with no further conditioning.

3)Stimulus Generalization:A process in which after a stimulus has been conditioned to produce a particular response, the similar stimuli  to the  original stimulus produce the same response, is stimulus generalization.

4)Stimulus Discrimination: The ability to differentiate the stimuli is stimulus generalization. It occurs if stimuli are sufficiently distinct from one another, that one evokes a conditioned  response but the another doesnt.

Transfer  of  Learning

Transfer  of  Learning

                 Transfer of learning is dependency of human conduct , learning or performance on prior experience. It occurs when the person comes in following situations:

*Recognizing common features among concepts, skills & principles.

*Links the information in memory & memory & see the values of utilizing what was learned on one situation in another.

TYPES:

1)Positive                 2)Negative                 3)Neutral/zero

Types of Learning:

Types of Learning

1)Problem Solving:We have to face several problems in life and we make solution for such problems. Thus learning helps in creating solution to solve problems.

2)Concept Learning:The formation of conceptual learning is based on a/c of previous learning or experience.

3)Motor Learning:It improves in mechanical learning skill of learner. For instance, we ride vechicles due to our mechanical learning.

3)Verbal Learning: It includes signs, pictures, sound etc. which change the behavior of learner as per the situation.

4)Serial Learning:It is also called paired association learning. By pairing related objects, we can easily learn such paired objects. For instance, if we have to learn about fishes we have to pair all the fishes in Pieces group.

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