The psychometric approach to intelligence emphasizes peoples performance on standard, aptitude test predicts peoples future ability to acquire skill or knowledge knowledge. Achievement test on the other hand measure skill & and knowledge that people have already learnt.
Intelligence test can given individually or to group of people. The best known known intelligence test are described as under:
A)The Binet-Simon Scale
Alfred Binet and his colleagues Theodore Simon devised the general test of mental ability in 1995. The test elded score in term of mental age. Mental age is a chronological age that typically corresponds to a particular level of performance.
Eg:A 10 years old child whose score indicates , a mental age of 12, performed like a typical 12 years child.
B)The Standford-Binet Intelligence Scale
Lewis Therman and his colleagues of Standford University created the Standford-Binet intelligence scale in 1916 by expanding and revising the Binet-Simon scale. The Standford-Binet yielded score in term of IQ(Intelligence Quotient). The IQ ist the Mental age divided by Chronological age and Multiplied by 100.
Eg: A 10 years old child whose performance resembles to the typical 12 years child, his score is 120.
The wechesler rest is based on the adult intelligence scale. This test contains many items that accesses nonverbal reasoning ability and dependless on verbal ability, which provide score on both and also on overall intelligence. Wechesler has used IQ test method to describe the score of IQ test. However, the wechesler test is based on normal distribution of data which represent how characterstics like IQ are distributed on large population. In this IQ scoring system, the mean IQ is set at 100 and standard deviation is set at 15. So, the people (68%) tested will score between 85 to 115 within one SD of mean.
The intelligence level varies from person to person. Thus to identify the level of intelligence, we can use various methods by asking the question to an individual or group.
i)Verbal Question: The question including the comprehension of verbal relation word and ideas may ask to test intelligence.
ii)Spatial Question: The question involving any task, in which the subject manipulates an object imaginatively in space may ask.
iii)Numerical Question: By giving the numerical/mathematical problem to solve the problem accurately and rapidly on given time.
iv)Memory Factor: The question involving the ability of to memorise quickly, may ask.
v)Perceptual Issue: To give the issue to perceive the given object accurately. E.g:Proxmity, simplicity, continuity etc.