Theories  of  Motivation

1)Needs and drive reduction theory :

               This theory is derived from the behaviourists view point like waston, clark hull & skinner. They stated need is a form of stimulation which gives birth to drive or motive which in turn sets the motivational behavior in motion.

2)Instinctive theory:

                 This theory is based on freuds theory of motivaton which was based on instincts. He asserted that Eros(ife of erotic instincts) and the death-instincts(desire to destroy self) are the ultimate cause of the motivation in behavior.

3)Social urge theory:

                   Alfred Adler advocated in this theory that human being are primarily motivated by social urges, where they require a margin of safety besides the simple security against the danger.

4)Goal-oriented theory:

                   This theory of motivation was firstly brought by a psychologist William James who esmphasized that the concept of motivation is necessary to bring the psychomotor gap between idea & action.  Later George Miller elaborated this theory through the construction of plan for bringing the psychomotor gap to meet certain end by involvement of cognitive factor in bringing motivation.

5)Self-Actualization theory:

              This theory was firstly proposed by psychologist Abraham Maslow in 1954. He put forward the hierarchical structure of needs for explaning human motivation. The gratification of lower order motives an individual to strive for the higher order needs.  

Thus the human needs increases from psychological needs upto self-actualization need. In fact its the satisfaction of this master need that guides and control the motivation behavior of human.   


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