Errors / Disortion in Perception / Perceptual Ambigyity
Sometime our sense organ get some physical stimuli that create errors in perception. Hence, the stimuli that we get would be false in reality. Here are the some errors which create false perception;
i)Illution: It’s a false perception. Here the person mistakenly take the stimulus and perceived it wrongly. For instance ; in the dark a rope is mistakenly perceived as a snake, voice of unknown person taken as a known, a person at far distance may be perceived as a known etc.
ii)Haellutination: Sometime we across instances where the individual perceives some stimulus, even when it is not present. The person we see an object or may listen some voice, though there are no object and sound.
iv)Depth Perception: It’s an ability to view the world in three dimension, through the two conventional record in retina and perceive the distance. The monocular cue (the change in position of an object on the retina caused by movement of our body) and binocular disparity (the difference in the image seen by our left and right eyes) helps to perceive the distance of objects.
iv)Perceptual Constancy: The phenomenon on which physical objects are perceived as unvarying and consistent despite change in their appearance or physical environment is said to be perceptual constancy. It leads us to view an objects as having an unvarying shape, size, color & brightness, even if the image in our retina varies. eg:the appearance of moon at night seemed to be closure to horizon and very big in size.
v)Stereotypex: Stereotypex is to believe unfairly that all problems on one thing with a particular characterstics are same. For instance, we believe muslims are terrorist.
vi)Halo Effect: When one trait of a person or thing is used to make an overall judgement of that person. For instance, we perceive overall character of a person through a single character.
vii)Contract Effect: This effect occurs when an individual is compared with other people on the same character on which other is either higher or lower.
viii)Selective Perception: It is a perceptual process in which a person only perceives about what he desire to and lets aside or ignore others perception or views. It is also classified under following two topics:
✳Perceptual vigilance:It refers to an individuals notice & recognize the stimulus that may be significant to him/her on some degree.
✳Perceptual Defense:It occurs in an attempt if person, to creat a barrier between him/her and the stimuli, so that they could protest themselves from having awareness of it.