Learning in which voluntary response is strengthened or weakened depending on its favorable and unfavourable consequences is operant conditioning. It involves increasing behavior by following it with reward or decreasing it by following with the punishment. Thus, operant conditioning is is process of shaping behavior by means of reinforcement or punishment.
✳Types of Operant Conditioning:
i)Positive reinforcement: A stimulus added to the environment, that bring about an increase in a preceding response is positive reinforcement. It is given after a positive action in the form of reward or award.
ii)Extinction: Its a continuous flow of positive reinforcement till the person get to learn the desirable form of behavior. For eg. mother gives a chocolate to child for additional positive behavioral change in child.
iii)Negative reinforcement: Any reinforcement added continuously till the person stops performing unwanted forms of behavior.
iv)Punishment: Its a stimulus which decrease in repeating previous undesirable behavior. Eg, teachers punishment to student to present in class on time.