​THEORIES OF PERSONALITY

The theories of personality can be classified under four topics:

A)Theories of Adopting Type Approach 

a)Hippocrates Classification:(sanguine, phlegmatic & melancholic)

b)Kretshmers Classification:(psychnic, athlete & leptosomatic)

c)Sheldons Classification:(endomorphic, ectomorphic & mesomorphic)  

B)Theories Adopting Trait Approach

a)Allports Theory

b)Catels Theory (common trait, unique  trait, surface trait & source trait)

C)Theories Adopting Tpe Cum Trait Approach

*Eysencks Teory of Personality (4 level of behavioural organization)

D)Freuds Psychoanalytic Teory of Personality 

     *Id          *Ego        *Super-ego

E)Bandura & Walters Social Learning Theory    

F)Adlers Individual Approach to Personality

G)Carl Rogers Self Theory

H)Dollard & Millers Learning Theory

A)Theories of Adopting Type Approach 

            Theories adopting type approach try to classify peoples personality into categories or type according to certain characterstics.   

a)Hippocrates Classification: Hippocrate classified personality on the basis of fluid type in the body, along with the defined characterstics. His, type of personality are sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic & and melancholic.

b)Kretshmers Classification: Kretshmer emphasized specific biological type based on body structure. He has classified personality under three types psychnic (haivng fat body), athlete (having balanced body)  & leptosomatic (having lean & thin body).

c)Sheldons Classification:Sheldon identified three distinct types based the relationship bettween a presons physique  & behavior. He distinguished the personality under three type endomorphic, ectomorphic & mesomorphic along with its description  including personality according to somatic or bodys structure and the characterstics.
B)Theories Adopting Trait Approah

             Theories adopting trait approach try to describe people in term of unique pattern of trait. They defined trait as relatively permanent and relatively consistent general behavior patterns that an individual exhibits in many situations. This theory is also known as personality theory of allport & cottell. 

a)Allports Theory: Allport states an individual develops an unique set of organized tendencies or trait, which are organized around few cardinal (primary) traits. This theory indicates personality is made up of large number of trait and it rejects the notion of relatively number of personality. 

b)Catels Theory: A British born American researcher  Raymond B. Cattell has defined trait as a structure of the personality inferred from behavior in different situation  and described four types of traits:

i)Common trait: The trait found widely distributed in general population like honesty, sggression & co-operation.

ii)Unique trait: Unique to a person as tempramental trait & emotionl reaction.

iii)Surface trait: Able to be recognized by our manifestation of behavior like; curiosity, tactfulness & dependency.

iv)Source trait: Underlying structure or source that determine ones behavior such as dominance, submission emotionality etc.
C)Theories Adopting Tpe Cum Trait Approach

             This theory try to synthesize the type & trait approach. Starting from trait approach it yields definite personality types. The Eysencks Teory of Personality reflects such approach. The theory includes four level of behavior organization:

*At lowest level we have specific response 

*At second level we have habitual response

*At third level we have organization of habitual act into a general type

*At fourth level we have organization of these trait  into a general type
D)Freuds Psychoanalytic Teory of Personality 

                   Freuds theory of personality is built on the premise of three divison of human mind i.e:conscious, semi-conscious & unconscious. Freud believes, the anatomy of personality is build around the three unified aand interacting system i.e; Id, Ego & Super-ego.

i)Id : The raw, savage & immoral basis of stuff of a mans personality that is hidden in deep layer of ones unconscious mind. It consists of ambition, desire, tendency and appetite of an individuals as guided by pleasure seeking principle.  

ii)Ego : The second function Ego act as a policemen to check the unlawful activities of Id. It allows the principle of reality and act with intelligence in controlling, selectig and deciding what appetite have to be satisfied and in which way they are to be satisfied.

iii)Super-ego: The third system of personality super-ego  is ethical moral arm of personality an also an idealstic which doesnt care for realities. It includes decision making according to environment which it accepts.   

E)Bandura & Walters Social Learning Theory 

               Bandura & Walter in this theory of  social learning, emphasized that people acquire personality by observing and initiating real life and symbolic models.  Personality develops through repeated observation behavior i.e: Self efficacy(believe in own capability) and Self esteem(believe in own weakness).

              This theory adopts developmental approach which emphasizes in the gradual growth and development of person. It concerns on how the growth and development gradually take place? What directs the development of personality? What tyoes of characterstics are acquired as aresult of development? etc.   
F)Adlers Individual Approach to Personality

              Adler opposed the freudian structure of personality. He said the sex isnt the life energy or the centre of human activities, but the power motive is the centre urge for human i.e: what kind of personality one posses, can be undrerstood by studying his living style
G)Carl Rogers Self Theory

              The American psychologist Carl Rogers self theory olds personality is a function between two systems (organism & the self) of ones world of subjective experience. He linked personality with the ddevelopment & maintainance of self-concept and the attempts to acheive the idea self.   

H)Dollard & Millers Learning Theory

Dollard and miller in the learning theory of personality attemped to combine learning theory with psychoanalytic theory and viewed personality as a function of drive reduction. This theory emphasizes that, the child at birth is equipped with two types of basic factors, reflex and innate hierarchies of response and a set of primary drives which are internal stimuli of great strength linked with psychological process which impel him to action.    

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